Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aspire to create a society free of coercive hierarchies. Adherents assert that a desirable synthesis of societal equality and freedom could be achieved, at least in part, through abolishing authoritarian institutions that own and control certain productive means as private property.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 in Besançon – 19 January 1865 in Passy) was a French politician, mutualist philosopher and socialist. He was a member of the French Parliament, and he was the first person to call himself an "". He is considered among the most influential theorists and organisers of anarchism. After the events of 1848 he began to call himself a federalist. Proudhon was a printer who taught himself Latin in order to better print books in the language.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819–31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. The Realist movement bridged the Romantic movement (characterized by the paintings of Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix), with the Barbizon School and the Impressionists. Courbet occupies an important place in 19th century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social commentary in his work.