Hilaire Marin Rouelle (1718–1779) was a French chemist. In 1773, he discovered urea. He is known as "le cadet" (the younger) to distinguish him from his older brother, Guillaume-François Rouelle, who was also a chemist.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of disease. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease.
The 19th century (1801–1900) was a period in history marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the United States, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration.
Jean Claude Eugène Péclet (February 10, 1793 - December 6, 1857) was a French physicist. He was born in Besançon, France. Péclet became, in 1812, one of the first students of the École Normale in Paris with Gay-Lussac and Dulong being his professors. In 1816, he was elected professor at the Collège de Marseille and taught physical sciences there until 1827. Being nominated maître de conférences at the École Normale, he returned to Paris.
Anselme Payen (January 6, 1795 - May 12, 1871) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose. Payen was born in Paris. He began studying science with his father when he was 13-year-old, and later studied Chemistry at the École Polytechnique under the chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Michel Eugène Chevreul.