Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior, and a sub-topic of zoology. Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior throughout history, the modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and Austrian biologist Konrad Lorenz, joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in medicine.
Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois (28 January 1858 – 16 December 1940) was a Dutch paleoanthropologist. He earned worldwide fame for his discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus (later redesignated Homo erectus), or 'Java Man'. Although hominid fossils had been found and studied before, Dubois was the first anthropologist to embark upon a purposeful search for them.
Alberto Ferrero La Marmora (or Della Marmora; April 7, 1789 – March 18, 1863) was an Italian soldier and naturalist. Born in Turin, La Marmora was a general in the Napoleonic Wars and was personally decorated by Napoleon I. He was later employed by the King of Sardinia. He wrote Viaggio in Sardegna (Travels in Sardinia) in 1860, which extended the study of the island previously made by Francesco Cetti.
Elliot Lovegood Grant Watson (14 June 1885 – 21 May 1970) was a writer and biologist whose works combine the scrutiny of a scientist with the insight of the poet. Among some 40 books and many essays and short stories he wrote six 'Australian' novels and several scientific-philosophical works that challenge Darwinism, or the mechanism of evolutionary theory, as an entire explanation for the development of life on earth.